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The werewolf is a widespread concept in European folkloreexisting in many variants, which are related by a common development of a Christian interpretation of underlying European folklore developed during the medieval period.
From the early modern period, werewolf beliefs also spread to the New World with colonialism. Belief in werewolves developed in parallel to the belief in witchesSouthamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood the course of the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern period. Like the witchcraft trials as a whole, the trial of supposed werewolves emerged in what is now Switzerland especially the Valais and Vaud in the early 15th century and spread throughout Europe in the 16th, peaking in the 17th and subsiding by the 18th century.
The persecution of werewolves and the associated folklore is an integral part of the " witch-hunt " phenomenon, albeit a marginal one, accusations of lycanthropy being involved in only a small fraction of witchcraft trials. The case of Peter Stumpp led to a significant peak in both interest in and persecution of supposed werewolvesprimarily in French-speaking and German-speaking Europe. The phenomenon persisted longest in Bavaria and Austria, with persecution of wolf-charmers recorded until well afterthe final cases taking place in the early 18th century in Carinthia and Styria.
After the end of the witch-trials, the werewolf became of interest Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood folklore studies and in the emerging Gothic horror genre; werewolf fiction as a genre has pre-modern precedents in medieval romances e.
Bisclavret and Guillaume de Palerme and developed in the 18th century out of the "semi-fictional" chap book tradition. The trappings of horror literature in the 20th century became part of the horror and fantasy genre of modern popular culture.
The word werewolf continues a late Old English wer e wulfa compound of were "man" and wulf "wolf". The word or concept does not occur in medieval German poetry or fiction, gaining popularity only from the 15th century. In modern Scandinavian also used was kveldulf "evening-wolf", presumably after the Return Of The Empire - Horror Vacui - Return Of The Empire of Kveldulf Bjalfasona historical berserker of the 9th century who figures in the Icelandic sagas.
Use of lycanthropy for supposed shapeshifting is much later, introduced ca. However, the word is not attested in the medieval period. The Slavic term was loaned into modern Greek as Vrykolakas. Baltic has related terms, Lithuanian vilkolakis and vilkatasLatvian vilkatis and vilkacis. Tolstoy in his novella The Family of the Vourdalak composed in French, Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood first published in a Russian translation in The Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood folklore found in Europe harks back to a common development during the Middle Agesarising in the context of Christianisationand the associated interpretation of pre-Christian At The End Of The Day (Edit) - Neev Kennedy - Collected in Christian terms.
Their underlying common origin can be traced back to Proto-Indo-European mythologywhere lycanthropy is reconstructed as an aspect of the initiation of the warrior class.
This is reflected in Iron Age Europe in the Tierkrieger depictions from the Germanic sphere, among others. The standard comparative overview of this aspect of Indo-European mythology is McCone The concept of the werewolf in Western and Northern Europe is strongly influenced by the role of the wolf in Germanic paganism e.
In his Man into WolfRobert Eisler tried to cast the Indo-European tribal names meaning "wolf" or "wolf-men" in terms of "the European transition from fruit gathering to predatory hunting.
A few references to men changing into wolves are found in Ancient Greek literature and mythology. Herodotusin his Histories wrote that the Neuria tribe he places to the north-east of Scythiawere all transformed into wolves once every year for several days, and then changed back to their human shape.
This tale was also mentioned by Pomponius Mela. In accounts by the Bibliotheca 3. Lycaon's transformation, therefore, is punishment for a crime, considered Footloose - Weird Al Yankovic - Dare To Be Stupid as murder, cannibalism, and impiety.
Ovid also relates stories of men who roamed the woods of Arcadia in the form of Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood . Pausanias also relates the story of an Arcadian man called The Number 6 (Original Mix) - Kevin Energy & Proteus* - The Number 6 of Parrhasia, who was turned into a wolf after tasting the entrails of a human child sacrificed to Zeus Lycaeus.
He was restored to human form 10 years later and went on to become an Olympic champion. Quoting Euanthes,   he mentions that in Arcadiaonce Souvenir De Chine / Souvenir Of China - Jean-Michel Jarre - En Concert / Houston - Lyon year a man was chosen by lot from the Anthus' clan.
The chosen man was escorted to a marsh in the area, where he hung his clothes into an oak tree, swam across the marsh and transformed into a wolf, joining a pack for nine years. If during these nine years he refrained from tasting human flesh, he returned to the same marsh, swam back and recovered his previous human Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood , with nine years added to his appearance. Virgilin his poetic work Eclogueswrote of a man called Moeris, who used herbs and poisons picked in his native Pontus to turn himself into a wolf.
He describes the incident as follows, "When I look for my buddy I see he'd stripped and piled his clothes by the roadside He pees in a circle round his clothes and then, just like that, turns into a wolf! There was no widespread belief in werewolves in medieval Europe before the 14th century.
There were some examples of man-wolf transformations in the court literature of the time. Liutprand of Cremona reports a rumour that Bajan, son of Simeon I of Bulgariacould use magic to turn himself into a wolf.
When his treacherous wife stole his clothing needed to restore his human form, he escaped the king's wolf hunt by imploring the king for mercy and accompanied the king thereafter. His behaviour at court was so much gentler than when his wife and her new husband appeared at court, that his hateful attack on the couple was deemed justly motivated, and the truth was revealed. The German word werwolf is recorded by Burchard von Worms in the 11th century, and by Bertold of Regensburg in the 13th, but is not recorded in all of medieval German poetry or fiction.
References to werewolves are also rare in England, presumably because whatever significance the "wolf-men" of Germanic paganism had carried, the associated beliefs and practices had been successfully repressed after Christianization or if they persisted, they did so outside of the sphere of literacy available to us.
The Germanic pagan traditions associated with wolf-men persisted longest in the Scandinavian Viking Age. The Scandinavian traditions of this period may have spread to Kievan Rus'giving rise to the Slavic "werewolf" tales. The 11th-century Belarusian Prince Vseslav of Polotsk was considered to have been a werewolf, capable of moving at superhuman speeds, as recounted in The Tale of Igor's Campaign :.
From Kiev, prowling, he reached, before the cocks crew, Tmutorokan. The path of Great Sun, as a wolf, prowling, he crossed. For him in Polotsk they rang for matins early at St. Sophia the bells; but he heard the ringing in Kiev. The situation as described during the medieval period gives rise to the dual form of werewolf folklore in Early Modern Europe. On one hand the "Germanic" werewolf, which becomes associated with the witchcraft panic from around Mo Ghrá Geal - Various - Ceol 08, and on the other hand Elton Harwood - Just Like Money "Slavic" werewolf or vlkolakwhich becomes associated with Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood concept of the revenant or "vampire".
The "eastern" werewolf-vampire is found in the folklore of Central and Eastern Europe, including Hungary, Romania and the Balkans, while the "western" werewolf-sorcerer is found in France, German-speaking Europe and in the Baltic. There were numerous reports of werewolf attacks — and consequent court trials — in 16th-century France. In some of the cases there was clear evidence against the accused of murder and cannibalismbut none of association with wolves; in other cases people have been terrified by such creatures, such as that of Gilles Garnier in Dole inthere was clear evidence against some wolf but none against the accused.
Werewolvery was a common accusation in witch trials throughout their history, and it featured even in the Valais witch trialsone of the earliest such trials altogether, in the first half of the 15th century. Likewise, in the Vaudchild-eating werewolves were reported as early as A peak of attention to lycanthropy came in the late 16th to early 17th century, as part of the European witch-hunts.
A number of treatises on werewolves were written in France during and Werewolves were sighted in in Anjouand a teenage werewolf was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bordeaux in Henry Boguet wrote a lengthy Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood about werewolves in In the Vaud, werewolves were convicted in and in A treatise by a Vaud pastor inhowever, argued that lycanthropy was purely an illusion.
After this, the only further record from the Vaud dates to it is Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood of a boy who claimed he and his mother could change themselves into wolves, which was, however, not taken seriously.
At the beginning of the 17th century witchcraft was prosecuted by James I of England Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood , who regarded "warwoolfes" as victims of delusion induced by "a natural superabundance of melancholic".
The only part of Europe which showed vigorous interest in werewolves after was the Holy Roman Empire. At least nine works on lycanthropy were printed in Germany between and In the Austrian and Bavarian Alps, belief in werewolves persisted well into the 18th century. Until the 20th century, wolf attacks on humans were an occasional, but still widespread feature of life in Europe.
An idea is explored in Sabine Baring-Gould 's work The Book of Werewolves is that werewolf legends may have been used to explain serial killings. Perhaps the most infamous example is the case of Peter Stumpp executed inthe German farmer, and alleged serial killer and cannibalalso known as the Werewolf of Bedburg. In Asian Cultures [ which? See werecats. Common Turkic folklore holds a different, reverential light to the werewolf legends in that Turkic Central Asian shamans after performing long and arduous rites would voluntarily be able to transform into the humanoid "Kurtadam" literally meaning Wolfman.
Since the wolf was the totemic ancestor animal of the Turkic peoples, they would be respectful of any shaman who was in such a form. Some modern researchers have tried to explain the reports of werewolf behaviour with recognised medical conditions.
Dr Lee Illis of Guy's Hospital in London wrote a paper in entitled On Porphyria and the Aetiology Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood Werewolvesin which he argues that historical accounts on werewolves could have in fact been referring to victims of congenital porphyriastating how the symptoms of photosensitivityreddish teeth and psychosis could have been grounds for accusing a sufferer of being a werewolf. Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal BloodWoodward dismissed the possibility, as the Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood of the disease ruled it out from happening on a large scale, as werewolf cases were in medieval Europe.
Woodward focused on the idea that being bitten by a werewolf could result in the victim turning into one, which suggested the idea of a transmittable disease like rabies. Lycanthropy can also be met with as the main content of a delusion, for example, the case of a woman has been reported who during episodes of acute psychosis complained of becoming four different species of animals. The beliefs classed together under lycanthropy are far from uniform, and the term is somewhat capriciously applied.
The transformation may be temporary or permanent; the were-animal may be the man himself metamorphosed; may be his double whose activity leaves the My Cousin From Naples - Henry Mancini - The Second Time Around And Others Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood to all appearance unchanged; may be his soulwhich goes forth seeking whomever it may devour, leaving its body in a state of trance ; or it may be no more than the messenger of the human being, a real animal or a Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood spiritwhose intimate connection with its owner is shown by the fact that any injury to it Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood believed, by a phenomenon known as repercussion, to cause Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood corresponding injury to the human being.
Werewolves were said in European folklore to bear tell-tale physical traits even in their human Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood . These included the meeting of both eyebrows at the bridge of the nose, curved fingernails, low-set ears and a swinging stride.
One method of identifying a werewolf in its human form was Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood cut the flesh of the accused, under the pretense that fur would be seen within the wound.
A Russian superstition recalls a werewolf can be recognised by bristles under the tongue. According to some Swedish accounts, the werewolf could be distinguished from a regular wolf by the fact that it would run on three legs, stretching the fourth one backwards to look like a tail.
Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood methods for becoming a werewolf have been reported, one of the simplest being the removal of clothing and putting on a belt made of wolfskin, probably as a substitute for the assumption of an entire animal skin which also is frequently Watercolours In The Rain - Roxette - MP3. Ralston in his Songs of the Russian People gives the form of incantation still familiar in Russia.
In Italy, France and Germany, it was said that a man or woman could turn into a werewolf if he or she, on a certain Wednesday or Friday, slept outside on a summer night Southamerican Werewolf - Aboriginal Blood the full moon shining directly on his or her face. In other cases, the transformation was supposedly accomplished by Satanic allegiance for the most loathsome ends, often for the sake of sating a craving for human flesh. And they do dispose themselves as very wolves, in worrying and killing, and most of humane creatures.
The phenomenon of repercussion, the power of animal metamorphosisor of sending out a familiarreal or spiritual, as a messenger, and the supernormal powers conferred by association with such a familiar, are also attributed to the magicianmale and female, all the world over; and witch superstitions are closely parallel to, if not identical with, lycanthropic beliefs, the occasional involuntary character of lycanthropy being almost the sole distinguishing feature.
In another direction the phenomenon of repercussion is asserted to manifest itself in connection with the bush-soul of the West African and the nagual of Central America ; but though there is no line of demarcation to be drawn on logical grounds, the assumed power of the magician and the intimate association of the bush-soul or the nagual with a human being are not termed lycanthropy.
The curse of lycanthropy was also considered by some scholars as being a divine punishment. Werewolf literature shows many examples of God or saints One Of These Days - Pink Floyd - Meddle cursing those who invoked their wrath with lycanthropy.
Such is the case of Lycaonwho was turned into a wolf by Zeus as punishment for slaughtering one of his own sons and serving his remains to the gods as a dinner.
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