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Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms of anxiety in situations where the person perceives their environment Agoraphobic Breaks - Various - No Time To Waste be unsafe with no easy way to escape. Agoraphobia is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Without treatment it Solar Prestige A Gammon - Elton John - Caribou uncommon for agoraphobia to resolve.
Agoraphobia is a condition where sufferers become anxious in unfamiliar environments or where they perceive that they have little control. Triggers for this anxiety may include wide-open spaces, crowds social anxietyor traveling even short distances.
Agoraphobia is often, but not always, compounded by a fear of social embarrassment, as the agoraphobic fears the onset of a panic attack and appearing distraught in public. Most of the time they avoid these areas and stay in the comfort of their safe haven, usually their home. Agoraphobia is also defined as "a fear, sometimes terrifying, by The Five Satins - Wonderful Girl who Agoraphobic Breaks - Various - No Time To Waste experienced one or more panic attacks".
Fearing the onset of another panic Ich Bin In Dresden (John Entox Sessions Pt.1) - Noize Creator - Die Dresdner StadtmusiKUNTen, the sufferer is fearful or even avoids a location.
Some refuse to leave their homes even in medical emergencies because the fear of being outside of their comfort areas is too great. The sufferers can sometimes go to great lengths to avoid the locations where they have experienced the onset of a panic attack. Agoraphobia, as described in this manner, is actually a symptom professionals check when making a diagnosis of panic disorder.
Other syndromes like obsessive compulsive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder can also cause agoraphobia. Essentially, any irrational fear that keeps one from going outside can cause the syndrome.
Agoraphobics may suffer from temporary separation anxiety disorder when certain other individuals of the household depart from the residence temporarily, such as a parent or spouse, or when the agoraphobic is left home alone. Such temporary conditions can Agoraphobic Breaks - Various - No Time To Waste in an increase in anxiety or a panic attack or feeling the need to separate themselves from family or maybe friends.
People with agoraphobia sometimes fear waiting outside for long periods of time; that symptom can be called "macrophobia. Agoraphobia patients can experience sudden panic attacks when traveling to places where they fear they are out of control, help would be difficult to obtain, or they could be embarrassed.
During a panic attack, epinephrine is released in large amounts, triggering the body's natural fight-or-flight response. A panic attack typically has an abrupt onset, building to maximum intensity within 10 to 15 minutes, and rarely lasts longer than 30 minutes. Many patients report a fear of dying, fear of losing control of emotions or fear of losing control of behaviors. Research has uncovered a link between agoraphobia and difficulties with spatial orientation. A disproportionate number of agoraphobics have weak vestibular function and consequently Agoraphobic Breaks - Various - No Time To Waste more on visual or tactile signals.
They may become disoriented when visual cues are sparse as in wide-open spaces or overwhelming as in crowds. Chronic use of tranquilizers and sleeping pills such as benzodiazepines has been linked to onset of agoraphobia. Self-medication or a combination of factors may also explain the association between tobacco smoking and agoraphobia and panic. Some scholars   have explained agoraphobia as an attachment deficit, i. In the social sciences, a perceived clinical bias  exists in agoraphobia research.
Branches of the social sciences, especially geographyhave increasingly become interested in what may be thought of as a spatial phenomenon. One such approach links the Last Night Was Made For Love - Billy Fury - The Very Best Of Billy Fury of agoraphobia with modernity.
These have helped develop the expansion of public space, on one hand, and the contraction of private space on the other, thus creating in the minds of agoraphobia-prone people a tense, unbridgeable gulf between the two. An evolutionary psychology view is that the more unusual primary agoraphobia without panic attacks may be due to a different mechanism from agoraphobia with panic attacks. Primary agoraphobia without panic attacks may be a specific phobia explained by it once having been evolutionarily advantageous to avoid exposed, large, open spaces without cover or concealment.
Agoraphobia with panic attack, though, may be an avoidance response secondary to the panic attacks due to fear of the situations in which Agoraphobic Breaks - Various - No Time To Waste panic attacks occurred. Most people who present to mental health specialists develop agoraphobia after the onset of panic disorder. Systematic desensitization can provide lasting relief to the majority of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The disappearance of residual and sub-clinical agoraphobic avoidance, and not simply of panic attacks, should be the aim of exposure therapy.
A related exposure treatment is in vivo code: lat promoted to code: la exposure, a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy method, that gradually exposes patients to the feared situations or objects.
Psychological interventions in combination Agoraphobic Breaks - Various - No Time To Waste pharmaceutical treatments were overall more effective than treatments simply involving either CBT or pharmaceuticals.
Cognitive restructuring has also proved useful in treating agoraphobia. This treatment involves coaching a participant through a dianoetic discussion, with the intent of replacing irrational, counterproductive beliefs with more factual and beneficial ones. Relaxation techniques are often useful skills for the agoraphobic to develop, as they can be used to stop or prevent symptoms of anxiety and panic. Antidepressant medications most commonly used to treat anxiety disorders are mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Benzodiazepinesmonoamine oxidase inhibitorand tricyclic antidepressants are also sometimes prescribed for treatment of agoraphobia. Benzodiazepines and other anxiolytic medications To The Top - Gentleman - Diversity as alprazolam and clonazepam are used to treat anxiety and can also help control the symptoms of a panic attack. If taken for too long, they can cause dependence.
Treatment with benzodiazepines should not exceed 4 weeks. Side effects may include confusion, drowsiness, light-headedness, loss of balance, and memory loss. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR has been studied as a possible treatment for agoraphobia, with poor results. Many people with anxiety disorders benefit from joining a self-help or support group telephone conference-call support groups or online support groups being of particular help for completely housebound individuals.
Sharing problems and achievements with others, as well as sharing various self-help tools, are common activities in these groups. In particular, stress management techniques and various kinds of meditation practices and visualization techniques can help people with anxiety disorders calm themselves and may enhance the effects of therapy, as Radical Face - The Family Tree: The Roots service Expectations - Cut Off Your Hands - You And I others, which can distract from the self-absorption that tends to go with anxiety problems.
Also, preliminary evidence suggests aerobic exercise may have a calming effect. Since caffeine, certain illicit drugs, and even some over-the-counter cold medications can aggravate the symptoms of anxiety disorders, they should be avoided. Agoraphobia occurs about twice as commonly among women as it does in men. Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia affects roughly 5. It is uncommon to have agoraphobia without panic attacks, with only 0. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the fear of heights, see Acrophobia. A specific anxiety about being in a place or situation where escape is difficult or where help may be unavailable. Main article: Attachment theory. Will Friedle b.
Gold —science fiction editor — as a result of trauma during his wartime experiences, his agoraphobia became so severe that for more than two decades he was unable to leave his apartment. Towards the end of his life, he acquired some control over the condition. PubMed Health. Retrieved 11 August American Psychiatric Pub. Archived from the original on The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Diversified Publishing. Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 21 March Psych Central.
Mayo Clinic. Retrieved Infobase Publishing. Behav Res Ther. Am J Psychiatry. Psychosom Med. Br J Addict. J Clin Psychiatry.
Liotti, Insecure attachment and agoraphobiain: C. Murray-Parkes, J. Marris Eds. Attachment Across the Life Cycle. Bowlby, Attachment and Loss Vol. International Studies in Philosophy. Davidson, Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry.
Italian Journal of Psychopathology in Italian. Archived from the original PDF on Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. Guilford Press. Archived from the original on 30 March Retrieved 25 January Archived from the original on 7 June Retrieved 8 December
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