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Hearingor auditory perceptionis the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
The academic field concerned with hearing is auditory science. Sound may be heard through solidliquidor gaseous matter. In humans and other vertebrates, hearing is performed primarily by the auditory system : mechanical wavesknown as vibrations, are detected by the ear and transduced into nerve impulses that are perceived by the brain primarily in the temporal lobe.
Like touchaudition requires sensitivity to the movement of molecules in the world outside the organism. Both hearing and touch are types of mechanosensation. There are three main components of the human auditory system : the outer ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The outer ear includes the pinnathe visible part of the ear, Running Around - Tell Your Mother - Running Around well as the ear canal which terminates at the eardrumalso called the tympanic membrane.
The pinna serves to focus sound waves through the ear canal toward the eardrum. Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window of the asymmetrical character of the outer ear of most mammals, sound is filtered differently on its way into the Alegrias De Baile - Various - Costa Blanca depending on what vertical location it is coming from.
This gives these animals the ability to localize sound vertically. The eardrum is an airtight membrane, and when sound waves arrive there, they Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window it to vibrate following the waveform of At The End Of The Rainbow - Mystic Warriors - Mystic Warriors sound.
The middle ear consists of a small air-filled chamber that is located medial to the eardrum. Within this chamber are the three smallest bones in the body, known collectively as the ossicles which include the malleus, incus, and stapes also known as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, respectively.
They aid in the transmission of the vibrations from the eardrum into the inner ear, the cochlea. The purpose of the middle ear ossicles is to overcome the impedance mismatch between air waves and cochlear waves, by providing impedance matching.
Also located in Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window middle ear are the stapedius muscle and tensor tympani musclewhich protect the hearing mechanism through a stiffening reflex.
The stapes transmits sound waves to the inner ear through the oval windowa flexible membrane separating the air-filled middle ear from the fluid-filled inner ear. The round windowanother flexible membrane, allows for the smooth displacement of the inner ear fluid caused by the entering sound waves.
The inner ear consists of the cochleawhich is a spiral-shaped, fluid-filled tube. It is divided lengthwise by the organ of Cortiwhich is the main organ of mechanical to neural transduction.
Inside the organ of Corti is the basilar membranea structure that vibrates when waves from the middle ear propagate through the cochlear fluid — endolymph. The basilar membrane is tonotopicso that each frequency has a characteristic place of resonance along it. Characteristic frequencies are high at the basal entrance to the cochlea, and low at the apex. Basilar membrane motion causes depolarization of the hair cellsspecialized auditory receptors located within the organ of Corti.
In this way, the patterns of oscillations on the basilar membrane are converted to spatiotemporal patterns of firings which transmit information about Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window sound to the brainstem. The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the signals are projected to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain tectum.
The inferior colliculus integrates auditory input with limited input from other parts of the brain and is involved in subconscious reflexes such as the auditory startle response. Someone - Dirge - Loïs inferior colliculus in turn projects to the medial geniculate nucleusa part of the thalamus where sound information is relayed to the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe.
Sound is believed to first become consciously experienced at the primary Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window cortex. Around the primary auditory cortex lies Wernickes areaa cortical area involved in interpreting sounds that is necessary to understand spoken words. Disturbances such as stroke or trauma at any of these levels can cause hearing problems, especially if the disturbance is bilateral.
In some instances it can also lead to auditory hallucinations or more complex difficulties in perceiving sound. Hearing can be measured by behavioral Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window using an audiometer. Electrophysiological tests of hearing can provide accurate measurements of hearing thresholds even in unconscious subjects. Technical advances in these tests have allowed hearing screening for infants to become widespread. Hearing can be measured by mobile applications which includes audiological hearing test function or hearing aid application.
These applications allow the user to measure hearing thresholds at different frequencies audiogram. Despite possible errors in measurements, hearing loss can be detected. There are several different types of hearing loss: Conductive hearing losssensorineural hearing loss and mixed types. There are defined degrees of hearing loss:  . The various means used to prevent hearing loss generally focus on reducing the levels of noise to which people are exposed.
One way this is done is through environmental modifications such as acoustic quietingwhich may be achieved with as basic a measure as lining a room with curtainsor as complex a measure as employing an anechoic chamberwhich absorbs nearly all sound.
Another means Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window the use of devices such as earplugswhich are Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window into the ear canal to block noise, or earmuffsobjects designed to cover a person's ears entirely. The loss of hearing, when it is caused Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window neural loss, cannot presently be cured. Instead, its effects can be mitigated by the use of audioprosthetic devices, i. In Capsaïcine - Ception - Oval Window clinical setting, this management is offered by otologists and audiologists.
Hearing loss is associated with Alzheimer's disease and dementia with a greater degree of hearing loss tied to a higher risk. Hearing threshold and the ability to localize sound sources are reduced underwater in humans, but not in aquatic animals, including whales, seals, and fish which have ears adapted to process water-borne sound.
Not all sounds are normally audible to all animals. Each species has a range of normal hearing for both amplitude and frequency. Many animals use sound to communicate with each other, and hearing in these species is particularly important for survival and reproduction. In species that use sound as a primary means of communication, hearing is typically most acute for the range of pitches produced in calls and speech. Frequencies capable of being heard by humans are called audio or sonic.
Some bats use ultrasound for echolocation while in Rebel Funk - Untitled. Dogs are able to hear ultrasound, which is the principle of Niepotrzebnie - Kuba Knap - Ludzie Mówią Różne Rzeczy dog whistles. Snakes sense infrasound through their jaws, and baleen whalesgiraffesdolphins and elephants use it for communication.
Some fish have the ability to hear more sensitively due to a well-developed, bony connection between the ear and their swim bladder. This "aid to the deaf" for fishes appears in some species such as carp and herring. Vertebrates aren't the only group of animals that have hearing. Some insects have hearing organs as well e.
Something widely spread among insects is body hair, that can be made to swing by sonar waves. Due to the resonance phenomenon certain hairs swing stronger when exposed to a specific sonar-frequency. This specificity depends on the stiffness and the length of the hairs. That is why certain caterpillar species have evolved hair that would resonate with the sound of buzzing wasps, thus warning them of the presence of natural enemies. Part I - .soundscapes - Tides Of Voltage, mosquitoes have hair on their antennae that resonate with the flying sound of homogeneous females, enabling the males the ability to detect potential sexual partners.
Some insects possess a tympanal organ. These are "eardrums", that cover air filled chambers on the legs. Similar to the hearing process with vertebrates, the eardrums react to sonar waves.
Receptors that are placed on the inside translate the oscillation into electric signals and send them to the brain. Several groups of flying insects that are preyed upon by echolocating bats can perceive the ultrasound emissions this way and reflexively practice ultrasound avoidance.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Audioception. This article is about auditory perception. For other uses, see Hearing disambiguation. For other uses, see Hear disambiguation. It is not to be confused with oral disambiguation.
This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Play media. Main article: Outer ear.
Main article: Middle ear. Main article: Inner ear. Main article: Neuronal encoding of sound. Main articles: Hearing test and Audiometry. Main article: Hearing loss. Main article: Management of hearing loss. The Sense of Hearing. Psychology Press Ltd. Auditory Neuroscience. MIT Press. Nat Commun. In Charles Linsmeiser ed. Worth Publishers. In Alice F. Healy; Robert W. Proctor eds.
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